Category Archives: Tips & Tricks

The New PoE Standard is Introduced



IEEE 802.3bt was the need of this technology because of the increase in the number of Ethernet-connected devices and their need of power.As Power over Ethernet (PoE) continues to grow in popularity, so does the demand for applications with higher power. The current standard, IEEE 802.3at, allows for maximum power at the powered device (PD) of 25.5 W, while the upcoming standard will allow maximum power of up to 90 W.



What’s New?

This will increase the limit of PoE because it will use all four pairs of the wires which are in it. It will be very useful for pan-tilt zoom cameras, VoIP Phones, LED Lights and the list is countless.

This not only enables the new higher power level, but also provides better efficiency for the current PoE power level. The power loss in the cable is cut in about half. For example, a IEEE 802.3at PSE (power sourcing equipment) is required to supply a minimum of 30 W to ensure that the PD will receive 25.5 W. In the IEEE 802.3at standard, as much as 4.5 W is lost in the CAT5 cable.

Powering the same 25.5 W with the IEEE 802.3bt standard will cut the loss to less than 2.25 W. This increases the power-delivery efficiency from ~85% to ~92%. When you consider the number of PoE-powered devices in the world, this translates to very large reduction in power, and in many cases up to a 7% lower carbon footprint for areas that are powered by fossil fuel.The new standard will define two more types of PSEs and PDs—Types 3 and 4. These additions will increase the maximum PoE power by delivering more power through two or more pairs of Ethernet cables.A new physical-layer classification, autoclass, will help the PSE determine the actual maximum power drawn by the connected PD. Type 3 and 4 PSEs will identify the PD and set the power accordingly to the maximum PD power, resulting in a better power-delivery system.To maintain a PSE power, a PD must generate a power signature while the lights are off and data communication remains active. The new standard will reduce the time duration and the Maintain Power Signature (MPS) duty cycle to reduce the average standby power/current, benefitting applications such as LED lighting due to the high number of ports.The IEEE 802.3at standard required ~0.13 W to be consumed by a PD,” explains Heath. “If the PD fell below this power level, the PSE would turn off power completely. The new IEEE 802.3bt standard allows a much lower power for the standby level. Only ~0.02 W is required to maintain a power connection. This allows PoE to power ‘green’ applications with agency requirements for low standby power.


What about its future?

We all know that innovation always has bright future but when we talk about the reports from MarketsandMarkets, the PoE market is expected to grow and reach more than $1 billion by 2022. The PoE market will expand with the new standard, giving way to higher-power solutions.Technically speaking, the new standard will allow for more power (60 and 90 W sourced), enhanced system efficiency, and better optimization of system power allocation,From a market point of view, the standard opens new markets that were not previously accessible. One example is PoE lighting.There will be an emergence of so-called ‘connected lighting systems,

So, basically it is a remarkable innovation in the field of technology, it’ll help networking improve like never before.

Innovation at its Peak: 5 Times Faster than 5G

According to sources 5G will be in the markets by 2020 but now some researchers were able to build an integrated circuit-based transmitter which will be able to send data much faster than Fiber Optics and this will also beat 5G in terms of speed.


This technology was discussed on the event of “International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC). A research paper was made for this purpose. The paper talks about a terahertz (THz) transmitter developed by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Panasonic Corporation, and Hiroshima University. This transmitter operates using a frequency range from 290 GHz to 315 GHz and is capable of transmitting digital data at a rate of 105 gigabits per second — which is a communication speed that’s at least 10 times as fast as 5G networks. The transmitter uses a frequency that falls within a currently unallocated range of 275 GHz to 450 GHz. Its use will be covered in the 2019 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC) under the International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunication Section (ITU-R).

Researchers accomplished the task to meet the speed levels with the help of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). The speed exceeded 100gigabits per second. Which is simple unbelievable.


Memory retrieval by near-infrared light

We have always seen that a sudden incident made everyone remember something and also lose a lot of memories. These incidents target specific parts of the brain and bring the difference that either give rise to new memories or remove the existing ones. Scientists at Hiroshima University (Japan) have built up a close infrared (close IR) laser-enacted procedure for spanning missing connections in memory stream. The work intends to build comprehension of the systems required in neurotransmission, which could conceivably prompt to medications for memory misfortune conditions.

Scientists have been working on the method by which they can bring back the lost memories, they have been working on this process for a very long time now and are still waiting to make a noticeable achievement. While researchers know that incitement of neurotransmitters, for example, glutamate is required for working memory, where and how these synthetic couriers are created remains a puzzle. What is known is that calcium has a basic part to play, as its fixation increments before glutamate discharge—a component that is inadequately comprehended in light of calcium’s trickiness in neuron cells where it exists as a broke down salt, making it hard to control or identify.

1000ft pic laser

A strategy has been created that, when utilized, could permit the generation locales of synthetic errand people inside neurons to be sourced, examined, and even rebooted as required to restore streams amongst neurons and lift memory. The primary period of the strategy includes blended bearer particles that, when connected to the body through splash, diffuse freely into neuron cells, catching and holding set up any calcium they experience by holding positively with it. But since calcium suspended set up is of little use in memory tests unless it can really be distinguished, Abe and his examination group fused chromophores into the bearers to give them light-engrossing properties. At the point when close IR light is anticipated at these altered transporters, they separate by means of two-photon discharge. This breakdown, utilizing light fit for entering tissue without harming it, makes it especially helpful for inward use in living life forms through outer control utilizing lasers. In the lab where the principal investigation was gone ahead, close IR lasers were projected at neuron cells containing the light-sensitive transporters to check whether calcium was discharged. At the point when the electrical charge at every laser-shaft entrance point was recorded, presentation to the electromagnetic wave separated the light-touchy calcium-transporter particles, making them shed their electrically charged calcium cation. As calcium just exists at particular neurotransmitter generation zones in neurons, a higher charge was identified in these focuses. Since this lone occurred in particular territories and at generally abnormal states, it could likewise be derived that the subtle locales of calcium focus in neurons had at last been found.

Researchers can now concentrate on these exact purposes of neurotransmitter creation to create medicines for memory misfortune, regardless of whether by watching how these ranges react to drug or by acquainting outside sourced glutamate with neurons that are not working.

How to transform your Home Network into Wireless N


The world is moving forward to newer and newer technologies and everyone is always looking for betterment. No matter it’s a company or a product, better versions are always released and the research to make them better is always going on. When you at long last get your home system set up and running sensibly well, most likely the exact opposite thing you need to do is change it. On the off chance that your system needs Wireless N ability, however, you could pass up a great opportunity for quicker speeds and better unwavering quality. So first thing that should pop in your mind is what the term “Wireless N” refers to. It is simply wireless network equipment that runs the 802.11n radio communication protocol.

Wireless N is like a cloud that is going to cover your entire home and allow you to transfer files between the devices. The convenience we have is that the older 802.11g based equipment could communicate inside the network at a standard rate of 54 Mbps. Wireless N items bolster a standard of 150 Mbps, approximately three circumstances quicker, with alternatives for significantly higher rates additionally accessible. Wireless N innovation likewise enhances the plan of radios and reception apparatuses incorporated with the system equipment. The signal scope of Wireless N switches frequently surpasses that of more seasoned types of Wi-Fi, bettering compass and keep up more dependable associations with gadgets advance away or outside. Moreover, 802.11n can work on signal frequencies outside the band ordinarily utilized by other non-arranged purchaser contraptions, decreasing the probability of radio impedance inside the home.

The only concern that we are going to have is that Wireless N for the most part enhances the speed of the film, music and other document sharing inside the house; it doesn’t expand the speed of the association between your home and whatever is left of the Internet.

The role of Diode Lasers, in exploring micro- and nanostructures

Diode Colors

Quantum dotes, are something that are aiming to change the future. They have the potential to change all about photonics. As we have recently noticed the trend that the Micro and nanostructures are becoming highly important for the research and the applied quantum technology. Noticeable cases of such structures are microcavities and quantum dabs, and cases of essential applications incorporate single or caught photon sources, qubits for quantum PCs, and different sensors. The structures likewise empower examinations at as far as possible, for example, quantum motions in microcavities, quantum electrodynamics (QED) with quantum specks, or even cavity QED considers with single quantum dabs in cavities. Numerous applications require full optical excitation with appropriate tunable nonstop wave (CW) lasers. By optically pumping microcavities at the correct wavelength, one can even make tiny intelligible recurrence brushes and short optical heartbeats an extremely encouraging application that is relied upon to have critical effect on photonics.


Quantum properties are typically not discernible in plainly visible articles in light of ecological decoherence unless particular example geometries and cooling are used that’s why we are always collided with some of the complications on the way. Utilizing microcavities, for instance, is one probability to watch quantum impacts in moderately substantial, micrometer-scaled structures. Along these lines, the coupled light can impact the vibrational conduct of the structure and the other way around. This property transforms microcavities into energizing items for quantum inquire about. For instance, analysts watched such parametric coupling amongst light and mechanical oscillations, and have additionally utilized a sensor that depends on optomechanical coupling for dynamic criticism cooling of such a microcavity. The reliance of the microcavity resonance frequencies on size and other natural parameters can be misused for a promising application: mark free discovery of single organic atoms in arrangement. This is empowered utilizing a microtoroid optical resonator in mix with a broadly tunable mode-jump free laser, (for example, Toptica’s DLC CTL). Specialists have depicted how such a laser is recurrence settled to a microtoroid optical resonator and how moves of the optical reverberation recurrence brought about by atoms authoritative to the resonator are watched. Along these lines, particles with radii in the vicinity of 2 and 100 nm are recognized and recognized.

The outcomes are further reached out toward making a noninvasive tumor biopsy test, and give a premise to an optical mass spectrometer in arrangement. For this application, not exclusively is wide mode-bounce free tuning required, additionally the capacity to advantageously balance out the laser to a microcavity. The CTL laser, for instance, has worked in, all-advanced adjustment hardware and, alternatively, uses a high data transfer capacity simple or quick computerized bolting gadgets.

Microresonator-based frequency combs

Microresonators are additionally progressively abused to make optical recurrence brushes. Due to the little mode volume of the guided optical field and high Q considers up to 1010, the powers in these resonators get so high that nonlinear impacts turn out to be extremely solid. A microresonator can change over CW excitation light into other recurrence parts through nonlinear four-wave blending and in this manner make a recurrence brush. The properties of the subsequent recurrence brush depend unequivocally on the pump laser wavelength, as a CW laser can energize garbled high commotion states and also soliton states. Soliton states are ideal, as the subsequent brush is reasonable and includes to a great degree low commotion, limit linewidth, and short heartbeats. In the event that the pump laser is filtered from higher to lower frequencies, sudden strides between various soliton states happen. Every progression relates to progressive lessening of the quantity of solitons circling in the microresonator. By bolstering back on the laser, the microcomb can be balanced out on one of these means, taking into account stable soliton operation. The results can be seen in the following figure:


The crystal stone based microresonators are particularly encouraging, as they highlight the most elevated Q components. To date, they have just been pumped with low-commotion fiber lasers. Such fiber lasers are not broadly tunable, and ordinary tunable diode lasers were not appropriate in view of their higher clamor. Nonetheless, another era of consistently tunable diode lasers now highlights ultra-low-clamor ebb and flow drivers and a laser resonator that consider limit linewidths beneath 10 kHz with low floats. With these tunable diode lasers, even precious stone based microcombs can be pumped. Using high-data transmission dynamic recurrence adjustment, the linewidth of the lasers can be lessened to the 1 Hz level to study impacts of commotion in the pump laser on the microcombs.

Quantom Dots

Semiconductor quantum dots are of nanometer size in three measurements with the end goal that their electronic states are quantized on account of tight control. These quantum spots likewise indicate other single molecule like properties, for example, solid photon antibunching and close lifetime-constrained linewidth, and are frequently called simulated particles. They are fascinating frameworks with which to acknowledge qubits, and semiconductor quantum spots are particularly encouraging contender for versatile quantum PCs since semiconductor preparing is surely knew.

Quantum dots in photonic nanostructures

          An imperative viewpoint for quantum-optics tests at the single-photon level is to emphatically upgrade and control the association amongst light and matter with the end goal that a discharged single photon specially couples to one all around characterized optical mode. By coordinating quantum spots into other semiconductor structures, for example, waveguides or photonic-gem structures (e.g., cavities), even depression QED trials are conceivable without the requirement for catching atoms.

With the most recent enhancements in the advancement of tunable diode lasers, investigating the micro, nano-, and quantum universes turns out to be considerably more advantageous. A portion of the subjects secured here might have a significant effect on future innovation advancements when, for instance, microcombs are set in phones or autos while their satellite correspondence is ensured by quantum encryption, acknowledged by quantum specks in photonic precious stones.

Optics Test & Measurement

Today the focus is going to be on leveraging geometrical and physical optics in effective-focal-length measurement. We can notice at times when optical engineers typically insist that interferometers and many other complex instrumentation is needed to characterize an optical component, more straightforward geometrical and physical optics strategies can regularly create the coveted estimation result. In colleges with both undergrad and graduate degrees in optics, it is informative to show understudies how their scholastic preparing can be useful in this present reality. To outline, exhibition of two diverse methodologies for measuring the EFL of a focal point framework are used. The first is a great geometrical optics-based metrology strategy—the T-bar nodal slide test. The second approach is physical optics-based, utilizing diffraction from a basic double grinding.

T-bar nodal slide test

          Initial, an illumination is all together. Notwithstanding measuring the imaging nature of a focal point over its field of view, the T-bar nodal slide test can be utilized to gauge the most essential paraxial parameter of an optical framework—the EFL. Be that as it may, the late blast in all encompassing imaging frameworks has introduced significance for the “nodal slide.” For all encompassing imaging, the revolutions of the camera between pictures ought to be made about the passage understudy of the camera to wipe out any parallax, as this makes issues for the all encompassing sewing programming. This is not the definition (or reason) of the T-bar nodal slide examined here. Rather, the position of the passageway understudy of the optic is insignificant, other than it being great inside the test bar limits.

The T-bar nodal slide test is comprised of two components in genera it has a collimator and a T-bar nodal slide. Both have more like, inter related functions. A collimator is an optical system that has positive power and radiant source at the front that makes the target look like it’s far away. This collimated object can be taken as a point source, and the source has the liberty to be narrow or broadband. In this manner, the T-bar nodal slide test can gauge the execution of an optic over the same unearthly band at which it will be utilized. Operating the T-bar nodal slide requires a lot of positioning. The positioning involves the near nodal point of the lens under test over the rotation axis of the T-bar nodal slide. In this way the EFL of the lens will be accurately determined.

Be that as it may, initial, a brief invasion into paraxial optics. The nodal focuses, similar to key focuses and central focuses are crucial areas in an optical framework. For a focal point in air, the nodal focuses and the main focuses are indistinguishable. Disentangling to thin focal points and paraxial optics, a positive power focal point of zero thickness will bring episode collimated light, proliferating ostensibly in the +z heading, to concentrate on the back central plane, which is pierced by the optical pivot at the back point of convergence. The front central plane and point are comparably characterized, however by following the episode collimated light going in the – z bearing. Given a thick focal point in air, or a focal point framework comprising of a few optical components, the significance of the nodal focuses turns out to be more apparent. For instance, a zooming focal point framework can have a long EFL (820 mm), yet in a moderately short general length with a back point of convergence just 311 mm from the last component surface.


Since the back nodal point is 820 mm from the back point of convergence, then by definition, it must be found 820-311 = 509 mm to one side of the last surface. Since the focal points are just isolated by roughly 100 mm, this implies the back nodal point is around 400 mm to one side of the main focal point of the framework. Therefore, we see that the nodal focuses can be found almost anyplace. Be that as it may, paying little respect to where they are found, it is starting here that the back point of convergence, and in this way the back central plane, is characterized. With a very much rectified or paraxial focal point, the picture for all fields of view falls on a level plane—the paraxial picture plane. Alternately, if a solitary collimated bar was episode on the focal point, then—paying little mind to the tip or tilt of the focal point—the picture would dependably fall on the paraxial picture plane. On the off chance that the focal point is pivoted about the nodal point, the picture will change in z as measured from the nodal point on the grounds that the picture surface is level, yet the picture does not horizontally decipher. This is the premise of the T-bar nodal slide.

Positive and negative lenses


          The first examinations have accepted that the LUT was a positive-fueled focal point. Testing a negative-fueled focal point requires a known-positive-controlled focal point and a mount that will hold the two components, additionally takes into account a variable partition between the components. The central length of two isolated focal points can be ascertained utilizing the accompanying well known condition:




In the above mentioned equation, t is the space between the rear and the front nodal points of the front and back lenses. For a solitary estimation of the collected positive and negative focal points, t and EFL-are both questions. In the event that the partition is changed and moment framework EFL estimation is taken, then explaining both arrangements for t yields:




When combined, you can solve for EFL- as:



In this manner, the force of the negative focal point can be figured knowing the central length of the positive focal point, the adjustment in detachment between the positive and the negative power LUT, and the framework EFL measured in the two cases. It ought to be evident that the T-bar nodal slide test can be performed at many restricted otherworldly groups, for example, the F, d, and C wavelengths (486.13 nm, 587.56 nm, and 656.27 nm, separately). Along these lines, the Abbe number of a singlet of obscure material can be resolved. Also, if the radii and thickness are known, the refractive record can be resolved; actually, this procedure was utilized at UAH-CAO to figure out which glass sorts were utilized as a part of an established doublet after the doublet was isolated into individual components.


Diffraction grating


Now we will spend some time with the second method for testing the EFL of a lens system. It still requires a collimator, however the nodal slide is supplanted with a low-spatial-recurrence multi-arrange diffraction grinding. The grinding is a parallel adequacy straight Ronchi grinding of period Λp—a progression of clear and murky lines of equivalent width Λp/2—on a transmission level with irrelevant transmitted wave front mistake. From essential Fourier optics, one finds that a regularly episode collimated light emission λ will diffract into a devotee of collimated bars at the accompanying edges, where m is the diffracted arrange:


For this half obligation cycle plentifulness grinding, m can be any positive or negative odd whole number or zero, and the percent vitality in these pillars ranges from 25% for m = 0 (undiffracted) to around 10% for the primary requests, 1% for the third, to just shy of 0.1% for the eleventh requests. Indeed, even with a low-control HeNe laser, the diffracted requests are effortlessly observed by eye out to the nineteenth request.

So contingent upon the accessibility of hardware and all of the equipment, these two strategies can be utilized for in-lab EFL confirmation. The more proper decision will be guided by the accessible hardware, as well as by the necessities of the framework, for example, the resistances and the phantom band.


10 cabling tips to keep your data center manageable


How many of you actually wake up in the morning and have to sort out your ear plugs on your way to work. It truly is a headache isn’t it? Ever wondered how much headache it would be for anyone who works in the data center where tons of cables go here and there and are plugged into several gadgets. Actually if you ever get a chance to see a non managed data center you are always going to find out some disturbing images and puzzling environments. Data center is the heart that pumps the soul of your business. Without it, everything stops. What’s more, when it has issues, so does your business. Ill-advised cabling can be one of the biggest nightmares you can have without even sleeping. Be that as it may, with some simple arranging and work in advance, you can augment the proficiency and dependability of your data center cabling. Here is the list of things you can do.

The cutting

You have to be real good with the measurements. It’s a familiar proverb, yet an imperative one. Not exclusively do you make tangled wreckage on the off chance that you don’t deliberately quantify your links; you likewise make a great deal of costly waste. You may find out that the additional two feet cable might not account for anything but in reality, it does. At last, you could spare yourself a ton of time, cerebral pains, and cash by measuring twice and cutting once.


You need something to identify in an ocean full of same species. In the event that you don’t mark your cables, you’re just making more work for yourself. Each cable ought to have a name on both ends, even if the cable is a foot short. Maintain a strategic distance from this issue by setting aside a little opportunity to slap a name on every end. Ensure your marking framework is predictable. Don’t simply run impromptu with this or you’ll befuddle yourself and the individuals who work for you.

Don’t rush terminations

Try not to purchase modest in light of the fact that they’re shabby and don’t race through the way toward ending cables. In the event that you have cables that lose their association on the off chance that you squirm them, you have to re-try them. On the off chance that you can’t end cables in your rest, you have to rehearse. You may believe you’re sparing time and cash. So always be alert and always be up to the task.

Tests are important

Under no conditions, what so ever, you must skip the test. Testing the cables you’re trying to put up for test is as important as testing the bridge before putting the vehicles on it. You must also make sure that the tester being used is actually light and is user friendly.

Handling patch cables

You have servers in a rack that are inside a foot of each other. Try not to slap three-foot fix cables on those servers — it not just looks awful, it’s unimaginably wasteful. With that additional length on your cables, you welcome tangles, wrinkles, and disarray. You have to be very efficient and make sure that there is nothing in excess and there is also nothing in deficiency.

Assigning colors for difference

          With so many cables in the same environment, what you can do is assigning color codes to different cables. This may sound somewhat over the top, however stay with a solitary shading for your fix cables and cable runs. The main time you ought to break that administer is when utilizing a particular shading cable for a particular reason. Be that as it may, don’t utilize hues haphazardly. Make sure the cable you choose has some purpose and also the scheme is all set up. Also color codes give more professional look so it is always a plus point.

Upgrading the conduit

Purchase conduit measured for what you will require later on. You never know when you’ll be including, and you’ll need to have the capacity to make utilization of as of now run course. You can’t do that in the event that you acquired a size that scarcely fits your necessities at arranging time. Pull out all the stops or go home.

Cable Friendliness

The design should be in such a way that it supports keeping cables in every way possible. Always make sure that you’re keeping it user friendly and you’re making it in such a way that it only supports efficiency and doesn’t let latency kick in. Arrange deliberately to keep away from later calamity. Likewise make a point to arrange in view of extension. Run additional channel, additional drops — more than you might suspect you’ll require.

Keeping certain cables away from power line

There are many cables that run in your data center that are going to get affected because of the power line. Cat5 in specific, needs to stay away from power source because it can get affected because of voltage. Keep power and networking separate at all costs.


This might come off as a negligible factor but it plays a very vital role. Cable can get warm too, and in the event that you have a huge measure of cable, that additional temperature can prompt to catastrophe. Plan your server so as to keep your systems administration runs cooled, and also the server racks.




LAN – The Local Area Network and General Introduction



Everyday all of us sit on our computers and are connected with the internet by means of our Ethernet cables, when we need to print our files from feet away we are able to do it and we’re even able to share big files from one computer to the other in our homes. Multiplayer gaming within the same house is also possible. But have you ever wondered how it happens? The only reason behind is local area network also known as the LAN. A local area network (LAN) supplies networking capacity to a gathering of different computers in closeness to each other, for example, in an office building, a school, or a home. LANs are worked to empower sharing of assets – like music, printers, recreations or different applications – and administrations – like email or Internet access. Best part is that these networks can either be alone or they can be connected to the WAN that gives them all internet access.

The structure

The era we are living in are dominated by networking and generally, the networks are using Wi-Fi or Ethernet for connecting tons of devices together and forming a web within a web. If we talk about the Wi-Fi LAN then it is in the air and is spread all over with the help of different access points. These access points work like bus stops and manage all of the traffic and its flow like a signal.

As far as the traditional wired LAN is concerned it uses different switches and routers also some hubs and other devices to connect the systems to a single network. So both Wi-Fi and Ethernet help the devices connect with each other without using any link in the middle that makes the operation very quick and uninterrupted. IP, also known as the internet protocol is the most dominant form of the protocol used on the LANs.

LAN, being vast

            A local network can contain anywhere in the range of maybe a couple gadgets up to a huge number. A few gadgets like servers and printers remain forever connected with the LAN while cell phones like smart phones telephones may join and leave the network at different circumstances. Both the innovations used to manufacture a LAN and furthermore its motivation decides its physical size. Wi-Fi local networks, for instance, have a tendency to be measured by the scope area of individual get to focuses, while Ethernet networks tend to traverse the separations that individual Ethernet links can cover. In both cases, however, LANs can be reached out to cover much bigger separations if necessary by totaling together various accesses points or switches.

Computer Network Speed, a general introduction

internet speed

Everyone likes it fast, today the life is moving ahead so fast that we hardly have a time to wait for something to load up for our operation. And when it comes to networking it always feels good finding out things to be very fast and totally operational but have you ever wondered what actually makes the network catch the speed? Together with fundamental usefulness and unwavering quality, the execution of a computer network decides its general convenience. Network speed includes a blend of interrelated components. So first of all the things that are going to pop up in your mind is going to be, what network speed is and how it works.

Defining Network Speed

Of course all of the users want their network to work flawlessly but many factors actually come into play that cause a little delay in the system and become a trouble for them. Sometimes this delay only lasts for a few milliseconds but in other cases it lasts for enough time to be a pain. The most usual kinds of issues we see include the time a new connection takes to establish, time to load a webpage, the most important time a download takes and last but not least the one we hate the most known as video streaming.


            Bandwidth is actually the main factor that decides the speed of the network. This bandwidth is visually represented in the transfer rate. Everyone knows the amount of bandwidth they are paying for when they subscribe for a specific service and get a router for the internet. Whereas in the networking it means the data rate supported by a network connection or an interface. So it’s just like a number that increases and also increases the speed of your network. Conventional Ethernet networks that hypothetically bolster 100 Mbps or 1000 Mbps of greatest data transfer capacity, don’t actually deliver it. This most extreme sum can’t sensibly be accomplished either. Cellular networks too by and large don’t guarantee any one particular data transfer capacity rating yet a similar guideline applies.

Scale to Measure Bandwidth

            The method of measuring bandwidth is simple, as it is the amount of data that passes through a network connection over time as measured in bits per second (bps). If you want to test the bandwidth speed you can always visit online websites that have tests and can tell you by giving a ping to your server. Indeed, even with these apparatuses available to you, bandwidth usage is hard to quantify definitely as it changes after some time contingent upon the design of equipment in addition to attributes of programming applications including how they are being utilized.


You might just consider one side of the coin and not the other, like it’s said both are important. That’s why bandwidth alone doesn’t put much role in the network’s speed but there’s also this one known as the ‘latency’. Bandwidth is only one component of what a man sees as the speed of a network. Latency is another component that adds to network speed. The term latency alludes to any of a few sorts of defers commonly brought about in handling of network information. A supposed low latency network association is one that encounters little defer times; while a high latency association experiences long postponements.

Scale to Measure Latency

There are different network tools like ping tests and trace route measure latency by deciding the time it takes a given network bundle to go from source to goal and back, the alleged round-outing time. Round-outing time is by all account not the only approach to quantify latency; however it is the most widely recognized.

So as a whole both factors play their roles in the network speed and to be honest, if you look around most of the users are only found to know about the bandwidth and not the latency that shows their lack of knowledge. Quality of Service (QoS) features of home and business networks are designed to help manage and give the users a better bandwidth and latency together to provide more consistent performance.

Ethernet cables and their differences



The world might be moving on to a wireless situation, where cables are much less in number. But the truth is sooner or later we all have to go back to basics and rely on them for our operations. One of these cables that are not going anywhere in the near future is the Ethernet cables. All of the Ethernet cables that we see around today have reached this point after an immense amount of change. They might look same from the outside but they have multiple functions at times from the inside and have classifications. However the only purpose of the Ethernet cable is to help in networking and connect devices generally to the internet. With so much variation in the market it can often get tough for someone to choose which Ethernet cable they must go with. Today we’d like to shed some light on these different types and also try to let you know which is going to be the best for the job.

First thing first, whenever you try to find out an Ethernet cable online there’s this one word you’re always going to find out as a prefix and that’s “Cat” e.g. the Cat6e, Cat-5. Have you ever wondered what this Cat is? Here is the ice breaker, it simply means Category. Whereas the digit that follows Cat is the representation of the specifications to which the cable was manufactured. If we try to make it easier for you then, higher the number, better the version and quicker the speed so here is the simple mathematics. More cables are being made for supporting higher bandwidth and increased speeds of downloads. What more could be kept in mind is the length of the cable. Usually the cables we use are below the barrier of 100 meters because above 100 meters the speed deterioration occurs.

So without wasting any more time, let’s get ourselves to the basic available and so far manufactured categories of Ethernet cables.

Cat3 and Cat5

Cat3 and Cat5 are currently being treated as dinosaurs in Jurrasic Park. You can only see them in the movies but they are, as we speak, extinct. You might not be able to find these cables in the market anymore as no one is manufacturing them. But just in case you get a chance to use them you might be reminded of Internet Explorer, because they’re too slow. Even the Internet Explorer doesn’t exist anymore. However later on the Cat5e was introduced down the line as well in which the letter ‘e’ was meant to be enhanced. The Cat5e is currently under use because it has no other physical difference than the Cat5 but is somewhat a better version.

Cat6 and Cat6a

As you can so far notice that the categories are being joined with digits and other alphabets. Here ‘a’ means “Augmented.” And yes! Just like Cat5, the Cat6 also exists. But the Cat6a cable has the ability to support twice the bandwidth than the earlier. They also have an astonishing ability to maintain the transmission speeds and are equipped with extra layers that can eliminate the crosstalk. These cables are always shielded.



Cat7 right now in the world is just like the iPhone 7. It’s the new thing in town, it’s widely available and right now, as we speak, it supports the highest bandwidths. Since it’s the latest version so it’s obvious, it’s faster than Cat6a. Although these cables are more expensive than the one’s explained earlier but their performance is going to define their price tag. These cables have the ability to reach the speeds of 100gbps and they are a perfect choice if you’re looking to connect your modem with your pc. Cat 7 cables are always shielded too, and use a modified GigaGate45 connector, which is backwards compatible with regular Ethernet ports.


With the growing need of bandwidth the cables are getting advanced as well as this new giant is right now being developed. Cat8 is going to have faster speed than any other Ethernet cable known to date. It will set up some new standards that might be preceded by Cat9, who knows.


Your choice for a cable

Now we come back to the issue at hand that how do you decide which cable is going to fit perfectly for your need. Best way is to find a cable that is going to have some mercy on your wallet and is going to be enough to complete your need of bandwidth. But then next question rises, what is your need of bandwidth? If you need the cable for home usage, then what you usually consume, the Cat5e cable is going to be enough. If we talk about the routers that are being used in homes they rarely support better than Gigabit Ethernet, so there goes your need to put the Cat6 and Cat7 up for the job because using them is going to be a big question mark. Your pick if you’re looking for high performance should be max Cat5e, Cat6 can be useful too but then you must have the bandwidth to that level.