Category Archives: Innovation

Innovation in Ethernet’s Distribution System

Network

A new version of Symatavision is being released and it is considered as a timing analysis solution which is for embedded software’s and it is designed specially by keeping in mind the time-critical ventures.

The CEO of Luxoft said “Symtavision 4.0 has a new analysis option at functional level as well as updated features for the analysis of Ethernet networks. Both new features will significantly improve timing analysis of automotive control units, networks and distributed systems in general, the vendor promises.”

Moreover it includes a new visualization capability in its SymTA/S toolset which is for dataflow. Which is ideal for a fast running software. Apart from that it has numerous filters which are designed so the software could work efficiently.

The CEO added “Symtavision 4.0 also includes extensions to the Ethernet network timing analyses in SymTA/S. Buffer occupancy in Ethernet switches can now be undertaken at the buffer level, allowing the validation of switch memory and thereby reducing the risk of dropped frames due to buffer overflows. This is supported in both simulation (system distribution) analysis and worst-case analysis. The addition of end-to-end jitter metrics provide an early hint as to the real-time capability of individual messages and helps to identify potential data losses at the receiver. Worst-case latency analysis has also been extended to cover Ethernet AVB and support is now provided for Autosar 4.2 Ethernet models, including SOME/IP. For CAN networks, a new dashboard is available that provides a quick overview of the status of a network.To support the automated testing of automotive ECUs and networks (CAN, FlexRay, Ethernet), both the SymTA/S TraceAnalyzer tools in Symtavision 4.0 offer advanced comparison of actual versus target behavior, facilitating fast verification of measurements against the expected behavior from the model.”

So basically it is an outstanding innovation in the field of networking and its design is simple phenomenal.

 

 

Fire test for communication cable is the need of the hour

cables fire

With the advent in technology our life style has changed dramatically. We have changed our work place and living patterns. We are living a much more comfortable life with the technology gadgets but these gadget which have made of life easy also possess the tendency to take our lives. With our new state of the art buildings equipped with new breath taking technologies we are more prone to fatal fire out breaks. Our buildings are webbed with commination cables which can turn into a fire conductor if proper measures are not taken into consideration by the manufacturers.

There are cable producers who are manufacturing communications cable that does not pass fire and life-safety building codes and yet they label it with all the marketing you need on the proper testified cables.

The communication cables are tested in Steiner Tunnel, in which cables are tested by being subjected to fire. A cable earns the plenum rating by passing specific flame-spread and smoke-generation requirements in a Steiner Tunnel. Cables are subjected to a tunnel and fire is then initiated at one end and then technicians measure how far does the fire reaches in the cable.
First fire onset is measured by the control cable whose manufacture is known to be proper and safe and then a cable without UL approved holograph label was subjected to fire which burnt rapidly and produced dense smoke. So when you are installing the cables in your building make sure you are using the right UL approved cables which are designed to with stand fire out breaks.

Over Coaxial Adapter: Innovation in the field of Adapters

We all love cables but hate them sometimes as well, why we love them? Because they are very quick and why do we hate them? Because they are wires and get tangled sometimes and sometimes are too much in amount they are not presentable. Another reason for hating them is that they keep us suspended to certain place and don’t provide much of the portability. Watching those cables strung around the wall can be annoying at times as well. Sometimes these cables feel like snakes crawling all around if the place is networked.

adapters

A  Ethernet Over Coax Adapter has been introduced to the world. This device is going to use the G.hn standard to make the power of local networks increase. If we try to explain it in simple words, because of this in consumers hands they will not have to buy more Ethernet cables or have them installed. They will be using coaxial cables that are already installed in the homes and offices. The concern is that these cables can’t be used to send the videos. The speed however is going to be breathtaking as the providers promise it to be 1 GB/s. This specification is going to have Forward Error Correction (FEC) technology, because of which the videos are going to be seamless and video lag is going to be reduced as well. The problem is that this setup is going to be given to the users that already have the coaxial cables installed, if they don’t then it destroys the purpose of this device.

The New PoE Standard is Introduced

 

 bbb

IEEE 802.3bt was the need of this technology because of the increase in the number of Ethernet-connected devices and their need of power.As Power over Ethernet (PoE) continues to grow in popularity, so does the demand for applications with higher power. The current standard, IEEE 802.3at, allows for maximum power at the powered device (PD) of 25.5 W, while the upcoming standard will allow maximum power of up to 90 W.

 

 

What’s New?

This will increase the limit of PoE because it will use all four pairs of the wires which are in it. It will be very useful for pan-tilt zoom cameras, VoIP Phones, LED Lights and the list is countless.

This not only enables the new higher power level, but also provides better efficiency for the current PoE power level. The power loss in the cable is cut in about half. For example, a IEEE 802.3at PSE (power sourcing equipment) is required to supply a minimum of 30 W to ensure that the PD will receive 25.5 W. In the IEEE 802.3at standard, as much as 4.5 W is lost in the CAT5 cable.

Powering the same 25.5 W with the IEEE 802.3bt standard will cut the loss to less than 2.25 W. This increases the power-delivery efficiency from ~85% to ~92%. When you consider the number of PoE-powered devices in the world, this translates to very large reduction in power, and in many cases up to a 7% lower carbon footprint for areas that are powered by fossil fuel.The new standard will define two more types of PSEs and PDs—Types 3 and 4. These additions will increase the maximum PoE power by delivering more power through two or more pairs of Ethernet cables.A new physical-layer classification, autoclass, will help the PSE determine the actual maximum power drawn by the connected PD. Type 3 and 4 PSEs will identify the PD and set the power accordingly to the maximum PD power, resulting in a better power-delivery system.To maintain a PSE power, a PD must generate a power signature while the lights are off and data communication remains active. The new standard will reduce the time duration and the Maintain Power Signature (MPS) duty cycle to reduce the average standby power/current, benefitting applications such as LED lighting due to the high number of ports.The IEEE 802.3at standard required ~0.13 W to be consumed by a PD,” explains Heath. “If the PD fell below this power level, the PSE would turn off power completely. The new IEEE 802.3bt standard allows a much lower power for the standby level. Only ~0.02 W is required to maintain a power connection. This allows PoE to power ‘green’ applications with agency requirements for low standby power.

aaa

What about its future?

We all know that innovation always has bright future but when we talk about the reports from MarketsandMarkets, the PoE market is expected to grow and reach more than $1 billion by 2022. The PoE market will expand with the new standard, giving way to higher-power solutions.Technically speaking, the new standard will allow for more power (60 and 90 W sourced), enhanced system efficiency, and better optimization of system power allocation,From a market point of view, the standard opens new markets that were not previously accessible. One example is PoE lighting.There will be an emergence of so-called ‘connected lighting systems,

So, basically it is a remarkable innovation in the field of technology, it’ll help networking improve like never before.

Innovation at its Peak: 5 Times Faster than 5G

According to sources 5G will be in the markets by 2020 but now some researchers were able to build an integrated circuit-based transmitter which will be able to send data much faster than Fiber Optics and this will also beat 5G in terms of speed.

5g

This technology was discussed on the event of “International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC). A research paper was made for this purpose. The paper talks about a terahertz (THz) transmitter developed by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Panasonic Corporation, and Hiroshima University. This transmitter operates using a frequency range from 290 GHz to 315 GHz and is capable of transmitting digital data at a rate of 105 gigabits per second — which is a communication speed that’s at least 10 times as fast as 5G networks. The transmitter uses a frequency that falls within a currently unallocated range of 275 GHz to 450 GHz. Its use will be covered in the 2019 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC) under the International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunication Section (ITU-R).

Researchers accomplished the task to meet the speed levels with the help of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). The speed exceeded 100gigabits per second. Which is simple unbelievable.

 

Optics Test & Measurement

Today the focus is going to be on leveraging geometrical and physical optics in effective-focal-length measurement. We can notice at times when optical engineers typically insist that interferometers and many other complex instrumentation is needed to characterize an optical component, more straightforward geometrical and physical optics strategies can regularly create the coveted estimation result. In colleges with both undergrad and graduate degrees in optics, it is informative to show understudies how their scholastic preparing can be useful in this present reality. To outline, exhibition of two diverse methodologies for measuring the EFL of a focal point framework are used. The first is a great geometrical optics-based metrology strategy—the T-bar nodal slide test. The second approach is physical optics-based, utilizing diffraction from a basic double grinding.

T-bar nodal slide test

          Initial, an illumination is all together. Notwithstanding measuring the imaging nature of a focal point over its field of view, the T-bar nodal slide test can be utilized to gauge the most essential paraxial parameter of an optical framework—the EFL. Be that as it may, the late blast in all encompassing imaging frameworks has introduced significance for the “nodal slide.” For all encompassing imaging, the revolutions of the camera between pictures ought to be made about the passage understudy of the camera to wipe out any parallax, as this makes issues for the all encompassing sewing programming. This is not the definition (or reason) of the T-bar nodal slide examined here. Rather, the position of the passageway understudy of the optic is insignificant, other than it being great inside the test bar limits.

The T-bar nodal slide test is comprised of two components in genera it has a collimator and a T-bar nodal slide. Both have more like, inter related functions. A collimator is an optical system that has positive power and radiant source at the front that makes the target look like it’s far away. This collimated object can be taken as a point source, and the source has the liberty to be narrow or broadband. In this manner, the T-bar nodal slide test can gauge the execution of an optic over the same unearthly band at which it will be utilized. Operating the T-bar nodal slide requires a lot of positioning. The positioning involves the near nodal point of the lens under test over the rotation axis of the T-bar nodal slide. In this way the EFL of the lens will be accurately determined.

Be that as it may, initial, a brief invasion into paraxial optics. The nodal focuses, similar to key focuses and central focuses are crucial areas in an optical framework. For a focal point in air, the nodal focuses and the main focuses are indistinguishable. Disentangling to thin focal points and paraxial optics, a positive power focal point of zero thickness will bring episode collimated light, proliferating ostensibly in the +z heading, to concentrate on the back central plane, which is pierced by the optical pivot at the back point of convergence. The front central plane and point are comparably characterized, however by following the episode collimated light going in the – z bearing. Given a thick focal point in air, or a focal point framework comprising of a few optical components, the significance of the nodal focuses turns out to be more apparent. For instance, a zooming focal point framework can have a long EFL (820 mm), yet in a moderately short general length with a back point of convergence just 311 mm from the last component surface.

11

Since the back nodal point is 820 mm from the back point of convergence, then by definition, it must be found 820-311 = 509 mm to one side of the last surface. Since the focal points are just isolated by roughly 100 mm, this implies the back nodal point is around 400 mm to one side of the main focal point of the framework. Therefore, we see that the nodal focuses can be found almost anyplace. Be that as it may, paying little respect to where they are found, it is starting here that the back point of convergence, and in this way the back central plane, is characterized. With a very much rectified or paraxial focal point, the picture for all fields of view falls on a level plane—the paraxial picture plane. Alternately, if a solitary collimated bar was episode on the focal point, then—paying little mind to the tip or tilt of the focal point—the picture would dependably fall on the paraxial picture plane. On the off chance that the focal point is pivoted about the nodal point, the picture will change in z as measured from the nodal point on the grounds that the picture surface is level, yet the picture does not horizontally decipher. This is the premise of the T-bar nodal slide.

Positive and negative lenses

 

          The first examinations have accepted that the LUT was a positive-fueled focal point. Testing a negative-fueled focal point requires a known-positive-controlled focal point and a mount that will hold the two components, additionally takes into account a variable partition between the components. The central length of two isolated focal points can be ascertained utilizing the accompanying well known condition:

a22

 

 

In the above mentioned equation, t is the space between the rear and the front nodal points of the front and back lenses. For a solitary estimation of the collected positive and negative focal points, t and EFL-are both questions. In the event that the partition is changed and moment framework EFL estimation is taken, then explaining both arrangements for t yields:

 

a33

 

When combined, you can solve for EFL- as:

a44

 

In this manner, the force of the negative focal point can be figured knowing the central length of the positive focal point, the adjustment in detachment between the positive and the negative power LUT, and the framework EFL measured in the two cases. It ought to be evident that the T-bar nodal slide test can be performed at many restricted otherworldly groups, for example, the F, d, and C wavelengths (486.13 nm, 587.56 nm, and 656.27 nm, separately). Along these lines, the Abbe number of a singlet of obscure material can be resolved. Also, if the radii and thickness are known, the refractive record can be resolved; actually, this procedure was utilized at UAH-CAO to figure out which glass sorts were utilized as a part of an established doublet after the doublet was isolated into individual components.

 

Diffraction grating

 

Now we will spend some time with the second method for testing the EFL of a lens system. It still requires a collimator, however the nodal slide is supplanted with a low-spatial-recurrence multi-arrange diffraction grinding. The grinding is a parallel adequacy straight Ronchi grinding of period Λp—a progression of clear and murky lines of equivalent width Λp/2—on a transmission level with irrelevant transmitted wave front mistake. From essential Fourier optics, one finds that a regularly episode collimated light emission λ will diffract into a devotee of collimated bars at the accompanying edges, where m is the diffracted arrange:

a55

For this half obligation cycle plentifulness grinding, m can be any positive or negative odd whole number or zero, and the percent vitality in these pillars ranges from 25% for m = 0 (undiffracted) to around 10% for the primary requests, 1% for the third, to just shy of 0.1% for the eleventh requests. Indeed, even with a low-control HeNe laser, the diffracted requests are effortlessly observed by eye out to the nineteenth request.

So contingent upon the accessibility of hardware and all of the equipment, these two strategies can be utilized for in-lab EFL confirmation. The more proper decision will be guided by the accessible hardware, as well as by the necessities of the framework, for example, the resistances and the phantom band.

 

Optical sensors and real time detection

optical sensor

The world is moving on and day by day the need of higher bandwidth is being seen all over the world. Different companies and names are trying to meet up with these bandwidth requirements. For this purpose all new technologies and ways and gadgets are being made. It also involves the manufacturing of faster cables, new protocols and switches that can enhance the speed and also eliminate the entire disturbance that brings about delays in the process. Recently everything is being transferred to the fiber optics as they have turned out to be promising and have met efficiently with the rising needs. But these cables also require the detection and this is now made possible with the real time detection sensors.

Optical fiber sensing shows promise for monitoring of the condition of all the structures that are involved. In the recent advances there has been an increase of the sampling rate by more than 5000 times, that will help enable real-time distributed measurement. This approach is termed as the Brillouin optical correlation-domain reflectometry or by its acronym BOCDR which is a distributed sensing technique with high spatial resolution, high sensitivity and stability. In all of the Brillouin sensors, the frequency is exploited to derive strain and temperature. These sensors have also been proved out to be useful in the projects of robotics as they act as a nerve just like the nerve impulse of the human body. They can act as the electronic nerves for detecting the sense of touch, distortion, and the change in temperature.

CAT6 – Category 6 Ethernet Cable Explained

cat-6

The world might be moving towards more and more technology and things might have been getting changed with time, but the truth is sooner or later we have to go back and meet the tech that is long gone. Same is the case of cables. The world is moving towards more wireless and total chord free environment to a wireless one but to be honest, with the bandwidth requirement we have, cables are the only hope we have for now. Just to meet those requirements of the bandwidth more efficient and powerful cables are still being made by different companies around. Different standards are being introduced as well. One of these high standard cables is the Category 6 Ethernet cable.

As the digit six shows, it is the sixth generation of twisted pair Ethernet cabling. This cable was made to handle the load; other cables are unable to do so. Design is modified in such a way that it can support the Gigbabit Ethernet. It has the ability to handle the speed upto 1 gigabit per second, and on the same time the astonishing ability to support 10 Ethernet connections. The CAT6 cable is made in such a way that it has four pairs of copper wires and all of them are at the same time functional to achieve the highest level of performance. But like it is said, with so many pros of a certain product, there are always some cons as well. So just like other standardized cables the CAT6 cable has the maximum length to operate within 100 meters. Another drawback is that these cables are expensive. But when you get performance, you hardly look at the price tag.