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Fiber Optic and It’s Importance

Cabling structure is revised and revitalized with the induction of a fiber optic cable into the system. A fiber as the name indicates, means hundreds of thin wired, apparently of a size of human hair, are twisted and curled, covered with an insulation sheath, to make current and data flow more abruptly, swiftly and with all the decency required.

The individual hair cells, the fiber optics are separately coated with plastic covering, to handle the pressures and to give an auspicious and generous look and also to dignify and magnify the data transmission. ELECTRICAL SIGNALS carry the all-important data so the speed and efficiency of conduction naturally increase and extends beyond the boundaries. QUANTUM THEORY and PHOTONIC interpretation of discrete packets of light energy is the underlining principle on which the formation and functioning of the optic fiber are based.

Light carry all the impulsive forces, discrete energy packets, which are called PHOTONS, which constitute a light ray. Tech scientists and researchers have interpreted the science and logic and have modified the quantum theory to rediscover supreme, delicate, effective and quality connectivity. A gradual development, evolution, have resulted in the formation and construction of optical fibers which are linking the whole world and is a big contributor to making this world a GLOBAL VILLAGE.


A fiber optic cable consists of the following main units


CORE: the core is the center or epicenter of each glass strand within a cable. The core is a point of transmission of light.

CLAD: Clad is the plastic coating of each strand, the process is called cladding. It is essential because each strand becomes an autonomous and self-sustained unit.

INSULATION/PROTECTIVE LAYER: The electromagnetic influx from nearby cables has to be countered. So the fiber optic is well insulated with some Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), metal as per the demands and requirements of the operation.

CLADDING is very important because the light pulse which is central to the functioning of fiber optic cable has to be guided along the lengths and dimensions of the cable. So the material used for cladding has a lower refractive index and prevent the light rays from being dispersed. The data is delivered efficiently without any loses.

Fiber optic cables have two dimensions:

Single-mode fiber optic cable

Multi-mode fiber optic cable

The light pulse or beam in a single mode cable is streamlined along a single path, a single discourse is taken and this is where the name comes from. The light pulse of a beam in multi-mode fiber optic cable can take various discourses, can route along various paths, before reaching the destination.


SILICA and GERMANIUM are the two elements which are used in manufacturing optical fiber cables. These two elements with unique capabilities allow maximum control over the design and operational capabilities.

Silica is chemically inactive and this is one advantage which makes it the most effective ingredient in designing and forming optical strands followed by the process of the cladding. Silica fibers can be easily bent or transformed depending upon the needs. Breaking, molding and reconstructing silica fiber is easy. Making a solid strand out of germanium of silica is called PREFORM. Usually, Silica is the main constituent of PREFORM with varying quantities of Germanium. Germanium increases the refractive index of the medium.

Single mode cables have lesser quantities of Germanium as compared to multi-mode optical fiber cables. An outer protective coating entailing strand and cladding is necessary because it protects the strands from any physical and mechanical degeneration. For example, optical fiber cables submerged below the surface of the water are protected by metallic of PVC coating. The outer coating consists of two parts: the rock-solid exterior and a soft interior. The cable is ready to be served after going through various phases of reactivity among-st the desired set of chemicals in the presence of buffers. The cable is then tested for various parameters both qualitative and quantitative before dispersed into the market for sale.


Light is induced at one end of the optical fiber cable. Usually, a LASER or a LIGHT EMITTING DIODE is used as a source of light. The light pulse carries the data, moves along the strands, and is received at the receiving end where dedicated sensors decode the light signals as digits.

Light beam or rays are subjected to a potential loss at a single or more than one junction while traveling at the rate of knots along the fiber optical strands. REPEATERS are used to pace up the array of photons or discrete packets of energy so that the chances of losses are minimized.



Fiber optic cable is more resilient in comparison to traditional copper cables. They are strong and even exposed to the raw environment such as undersea; they will fight out any toxins or unwanted species by themselves without halting the operation.


There data transfer or data carrying capacity surpasses all the competitors. They deal in THz of terabits of data.

Heat losses:

Traditional copper wires dissipate heat and incur data loses resultantly. The optical fiber cables don’t get heated and don’t collapse even with high data count irrespective of the distances to be covered.

Cross-talk and Electromagnetic radiations:

If we look into the process of manufacturing and the types of ingredients used, it becomes very clear that optical fiber cables are highly effective in coping with the electric influx in the form of charged species which are moving around everywhere.

Ignorable amount of transmission losses:

Data transmission losses in optical fiber cables are as low as less than 0.3 decibels per kilometer of a distance traveled.

Small physical size:

Hundreds of strands of fiber can be placed in a single sheath of cable and this releases the burden of getting undone by the bulky layers of wires which become exceedingly difficult to handle, control and monitor.



Modern day communication modes have replaced the traditional wired structures with the optical ones. Telephone lines which carry sound signals are transported over the thin strands of glass that is optical fibers.

Cable television:

Cable TV networks use optical lines as the main medium of linking up various operational units and offices.

Local area networks:

Local area networks (LAN’s) uses fiber optics. Hundreds of computers are connected with one another to constitute a network using fiber optic as the medium of carrying out the process of transmission from the server to receiver.

Medicinal uses:

Fiber optic cables are used in the field of medicine to look into the physical structure of humans for any possible diseases. The thin strands can easily be placed within the body of humans for doctors to glance into the thick and thins to study the physiological and possible decay, disease or ailment.

Military uses:

Communication mode has to be flawless when it comes to defense and strategic planning pertaining to the military. Optical fibers are used to transmit signals as light impulses on and off a functional unit such as a submarine or SONAR.

Fiber optic cables are multi-functional; they transmit signals and can store data as well. Light travels through each and every medium apart from a vacuum. So the unique qualities of light as envisaged in the detailed research carried out in Quantum Physics are applied to its full potential in the communication industry.

Light signals are converted and decoded into electrical signals at the receiving end in the form of digits, numeric, binary function and the process of data delivery is accomplished. With low latency and higher attenuation, low line losses in comparison to traditional copper cables, fiber optics have become an ideal choice to exonerate the communication process off all undue pressures. Sustainability is the prime essence and the core feature of any type of communication and computing operation.

The optical fiber cables are sustainable because they are lit with all the essentials necessary to carry out the meaningful, unequivocal, uninterrupted communication across any dimensions. Optical fiber cables are always in control and take possession of all the tools, sources, applications necessary for efficient, timely communication. Discrete packets of units are called Photons. These photons constitute a beam of light. These packets of energy illuminate our houses, penetrate beyond the boundaries.

Light energy is used to study the dynamics of the earth in remote sensing and GIS. They are used to detect record and study the variations in the physical structures of the earth by capturing imagery of the earth with deep penetration using high energy radiations called ultraviolet radiations.

Light impulses as LASERS are used to cure diseases such as stones in the kidney or carcinogens. Now it’s the time for communication to be streamlined with the use of these discrete variables. The light impulse travels in a sequence, pattern, along with the dimensions of the glass strands well protected by plastic layer and the PVC coating, with units of data stored across each photon.

The cladding is the process of controlling the light impulse to sway away from the right directions as light particles can bounce off or back causing some data losses. The light impulse reaches the destination in the smaller duration of time, making it a very effective, durable and comprehensive mode of communication.


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